Note: An asterisk (*) next to a source means it hasn’t yet been fully reviewed by the PTB team.
Before the welfare state, economist Milton Friedman explains, non-governmental solutions were numerous, and these solutions declined after the growth of the welfare state. The key institution that provided across-the-board aid was the “mutual aid” or “friendly” society: voluntary, cooperative organizations that pooled resources from members for mutual benefit.
*David T. Beito’s book, From Mutual Aid to Welfare State: Fraternal Societies and Social Services, 1890-1967 (2000), is a great introduction to mutual aid societies. For a blurb, Press Me!
Refugee crisis (-2017) – For details, Press Me!
Louisiana flood (2016) – In response to flooding emergencies, an informal network of small boat pilots calling themselves the “Cajun Navy” rescued stranded residents and distributed food. For details, Press Me!
Joplin tornado (2011) – For details, Press Me!
Chilean miners (2010) – For details, Press Me!
Hurricane Katrina (2005) – For details, Press Me!
Chicago fire (1871) – A voluntary mutual aid society – the Chicago Relief and Aid Society – successfully collected funds and administered aid during and after a devastating 19th century disaster, even in the absence of charity tax breaks, or the expectation of state or federal relief. For details, Press Me!
Mutual aid societies – For details, Press Me!
Privatization – For details, Press Me!
Market solutions – For details, Press Me!
Theory and practice – For details, Press Me!
Pre-modern England – For details, Press Me!
The Black Panthers – For details, please visit the section, “The Black Panthers” here!
Greek anarchists – For details, Press Me!