Note: An asterisk (*) next to a source means it hasn’t yet been fully reviewed by the PTB team.
Theory and practice of “polycentric” law – Law that comes from multiple (competing) sources. For details, Press Me!
Books on law without the state can be found on our site here.
Contemporary Somalia – Two major papers argue that Somalian “anarchy” is actually a success, when you make the relevant “apples to apples” comparisons (when you compare to its neighbors and to Somalian government). For details, Press Me! For other sources on Somalia, Press Me!
Contemporary Israel – For certain matters, religious courts of multiple faiths compete with civil courts. For details, Press Me!
Aachen (1816-1920) – “A wedge of disputed territory in northwestern Europe, and arguably Europe’s counterpart to America’s so-called Wild West.” For details, Press Me!
The American West – For details, Press Me!
18th century England – For details, Press Me!
Hudson and Delaware Valley Algonquians – Dispersed authority, small settlements, and kin-based organization contributed to their long-lasting stability and resilience in the face of challenges from colonial Europeans. For details, Press Me!
Medieval England – For details, Press Me!
Medieval Iceland – Non-state law in Iceland during the 10th to 13th centuries provided, for its era, an attractive and stable society. For details, Press Me!
Ireland (Bronze Age – 17th century) – For details, Press Me!
Bronze Age India – For details, Press Me!
Southeast Asia – “Zomia is the largest remaining region of the world whose peoples have not yet been fully incorporated into nation-states.” For details, Press Me!
Communes and Worker Co-ops
Some examples of “Anarchy in Action” – a resource list.
Hong Kong – For details, Press Me!
Emergent Norms in Trade and Commerce
WalMart’s “Restorative Justice” program – A voluntary remedial education program for shoplifters, designed to avoid the criminal justice system, “hopefully giving people a second chance.” For details, Press Me!
London stock exchange (18th century) – For details, Press Me!
The Amsterdam Bourse (stock exchange, 17th century) – “…the first stock market…. At a time when many financial contracts were unenforceable in government courts the market developed surprisingly advanced trading instruments.” For details, Press Me!
The Law Merchant – In eleventh century Europe, “Merchants across Europe were separated by language, distance, and local law. To facilitate trade, they needed a common set of commercial rules. Out of that need the Law Merchant was born.” For details, Press Me!
Other Emergent Norms & Law
Primitive stateless societies – For details, Press Me!
Tort law – What’s to stop lawyers from abusing class action lawsuits? According to legal scholar David Friedman, the answer is transferable tort claims. For details, Press Me!
Ancient Near East (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel) – For details, Press Me!
Ancient criminal law – For details, Press Me!